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Teacher’s Guide to Basic Statistics

Subject Area & Year Level
Mathematics 4

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Learning Objectives/Competencies
This is an introductory lesson in statistics, covering the following topics: methods of collecting data; organizing and tabulating statistical data; and measures of central tendencies.

Since it is introductory in nature, the main objective of the lesson is simply to help students gain some familiarity with statistical terms and some basic concepts. Other topics in statistics as well as a deeper treatment of the topics introduced in this lesson, should be covered in subsequent lessons.

The lesson aims to help students:
1. Enumerate and explain the different ways of collecting data, such as census survey and sampling;
2. Enumerate the different sampling techniques;
3. Explain the importance of presenting data in graphs, tables and charts;
4. Find the mean, median, and mode of given grouped data; and
5. Compare the mean, median, and mode in terms of the way each describes the central tendencies

The activity may be implemented as a stand-alone activity or undertaken as a step in the webquest entitled StatQuest.

2-3 days

Before you conduct the online treasure hunt, do the following:
1. In the computer lab, with the help of the Center Manager download all of the online resources/websites and save these for offline viewing. Make sure that the saved files can be accessed from all of the computers in the lab.
2. Make sure that all computers are working.
3. Load the treasure hunt onto each computer or to the teacher’s PC and make sure it can be accessed from all of the computers in the lab.
4. Print copies of the treasure hunt for your students (one copy per group). (optional)
5. In the classroom, group your students into groups of three members each.
6. Each group computer will be assigned a computer. If you have more groups than computers, you may have to divide your class into two sets, with one set of groups working in the lab on this treasure hunt on Day 1 of this lesson and the other set of groups working on the treasure hunt on Day 2. Prepare a worthwhile classroom activity (seatwork) that is related to the topic for groups that will remain in the classroom on Day 1. On Day 2, the set of students who will remain in the classroom may work on their answer to the Big Question or be given a seatwork as well.
7. Explain the procedure of the online treasure hunt. You may distribute the print copies of the online treasure hunt (one copy per group).
8. Find out whether your students know how to use a computer (keyboard and mouse). If needed, bring your students to the computer laboratory and orient them to its use. Also give them instructions on proper behavior in the computer lab.

During the online treasure hunt, do the following:
1. Lead the groups into the computer lab and get them settled in. When everyone is ready, instruct all groups to start reading the online treasure hunt. (You and the Center Manager may open the treasure hunt file and have it ready for reading before the students enter the lab, or you can ask your students to open the file following oral instructions from you.) There is no need for a motivational activity since students will be motivated enough by the prospect of using the computer lab for this lesson. Also, the introduction to the online treasure serves as motivation.
2. Use the time allotted for your class. Do not borrow the time intended for other subjects. Start on time and end on time. The students should be able to finish answering the small questions in 30-40 minutes. The Big Question is to be done as homework. However, groups can begin planning their map (the answer to the Big Question) in the time remaining before the end of the period.
3. Move around the room. Observe how each group is doing the activity and write down your observations in a teacher’s log/journal. Assist students as needed.
4. When all groups are finished, discuss with the class the answers to the small questions (this should take about 15 minutes). Collect the groups’ answers and then remind everyone to answer the Big Question at home.
5. At the end of your workday, complete your personal notes on the conduct of the online treasure hunt in your teacher’s log/journal.

When the answers to the Big Question are due (2 days after the online treasure hunt):
1. Ask each group to present the results of their mini-survey—tabulation; computation of mean, median, and mode; and a graph or chart.
2. Lead a class discussion of the mini-survey results. Call students’ attention to the main points of the lesson.
3. Before dismissing the class, ask your students to comment on the online treasure hunt activity. On a piece of paper, ask them to write:
• what they enjoyed the most,
• what they found difficult, and
• what improvements, if any, they suggest for future activities of this type.
Give the students 5-10 minutes to do this, and then collect the answer sheets.
4. After the class, grade the group mini-survey results and record the scores (group members get the same score). Let the students know what their scores are.


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